The Famous Mackinaw Potato

The best potatoes in the world grow at Mackinac.” – Army and Navy Chronicle, September 1835

 Most people easily recognize two kinds of potatoes. A sweet potato has orange flesh and belongs to the morning glory family. Distantly related, the common potato is large and white-fleshed, being part of the nightshade family. The latter type was domesticated by Native Americans in South America at least 7,000 years ago. Introduced to Europe by the late 16th century, it eventually became a dominant crop, especially in Ireland. Potato plants flourish in a variety of soils, providing more calories per acre than grain. Today, more than 5,000 different varieties are grown across the globe.

A black and white photo of farmland on Mackinac Island, in what is now known as Marquette Park.

Gardens below Fort Mackinac, ca.1890

 Common potatoes weren’t grown in North America until the early 18th century. Brought to New England from Ireland, this variety became known as the “Irish potato.” Potatoes were first planted at the Straits of Mackinac by the British. John Askin grew them near Fort Michilimackinac in the 1770s, keeping meticulous records. As the garrison relocated to Mackinac Island, large gardens were planted below the new fort, near the harbor. When Americans arrived in September 1796, they found a commandant’s garden “filled with vegetables” and an adjacent plot “filled with potatoes.” A government garden provided fresh produce for soldiers for more than 100 years before being transformed into Marquette Park.

 Gardeners at Mackinac discovered these hardy tubers needed little soil to thrive there. In 1820, Henry Schoolcraft noted, “Potatoes have been known to be raised in pure beds of small limestone pebbles, where the seed potatoes have been merely covered in a slight way, to shield them from the sun, until they had taken root.” By this time, several small farms dotted the island where potatoes were a staple crop.

An artist rendering of the Mackinaw Mission in the 1830s, featuring a large white building known as the Mission House surrounded by trees.

View of the Mackinaw Mission, ca. 1830

 Rev. William Ferry operated a Protestant mission on Mackinac Island from 1823–1834. The Mackinaw Mission operated a school and boarding house for Anishinaabek children. Located near the southeast shore, staff and pupils maintained a five-acre garden stocked with potatoes, peas, beans, and other vegetables. In 1826, the mission also purchased the John Dousman farm, along the western shore. There, they grew 10 acres of potatoes and other crops.

 As tourism grew, the reputation of Mackinac potatoes (usually spelled Mackinaw) spread far and wide. In 1835, visitors found a potato patch near Fort Holmes, writing, “There are about eight or ten acres on this summit cleared up, part of them being enclosed as a potato field. The best potatoes in the world grow at Mackinac, and this plat of them looked very flourishing.” They were amazed, observing plants “flourishing among pebbles where there is no more earth than in a stone wall. The Mackinackians do not regard earth as necessary in a garden, and perhaps would dispense with it even in a farm.”

A drawing of a potato plant.

The Potatoe Plant, Its Uses and Properties, 1847

 As tourists departed, some carried seed potatoes to plant at home. In 1837, Solon Robinson experimented with several northern crops in Iowa, including an early variety named Mackinaw blue. By the 1840s, some voiced the opinion that Mackinac Island potatoes rivaled those grown in Ireland. Extolling virtues of the straits, Dr. Daniel Drake wrote, “the potatoes of this region, rivalling those of the banks of the Shannon, and the white-fish and speckled trout of the surrounding waters … render all foreign delicacies almost superfluous.” On July 31, 1847, a correspondent for the Detroit Free Press boldly stated, “The fine potatoes raised on the island are irresistible –all passengers want them, and sailors will have them.” For decades, the Mackinaw potato enjoyed a celebrated status, renowned across the nation.

A historic newspaper ad for Mackinaw Potatoes in the Cleveland Plain Dealer.

Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 9, 1850

 What made Mackinaw potatoes so special? They grew large, ripened early, and were celebrated for their “mealiness.” A mealy potato is dry, fluffy, high in starch, and low in sugar. These traits make them excellent for baking, mashing, or serving deep fried. The plants themselves were also resistant to potato rot, a disease which decimated crops in Ireland, resulting in widespread famine between 1845-1852. Many Irish immigrant families settled at Mackinac during this period, some fleeing desperate conditions in their homeland.

 By the late 1840s, potato blight had also affected crops in the United States. Disease reduced production by more than one-half, while doubling the price per bushel. Blight resistant varieties, including the Mackinaw, were highly sought after. In 1852, Samuel H. Addington displayed Mackinaw White potatoes at the New York State Fair. Two years later, a report for the U.S. Patent Office noted, “Most of the fine varieties formerly cultivated … have been abandoned, and those less liable to disease substituted, such as the Boston Red, the Carter, and the Mackinaw.”

A drawing of the King of the Earlies, a potato sold for $50.00.

Best’s Potato Book, 1870

 At the same time, hundreds of new varieties were being developed. Fueled by a robust profit motive, “Potato Mania” gripped the farming community. In 1869, George Best wrote, “during the past two years the most intense excitement has prevailed in regard to the Potato, and fabulous prices have been paid for seed of new varieties, which, it was hoped, would more than take the place of old kinds.” An extreme example, King of the Earlies sold in 1868 at the price of $50.00 for a single potato. With such advancements, old varieties, including the Mackinaw, eventually fell out favor. By the 1920s, it had virtually disappeared from the market.

A picture of Mackinaw potatoes ready to be made into chips.

Mackinaw potatoes ready for chipping, Michigan State University photo

 In January 2022, researchers at Michigan State University unveiled several new potato hybrids. One of the most promising lines was named the Mackinaw (MSX540-4). A cross between “Saginaw Chipper” and “Lamoka,” it stores well, and it is highly resistant to several diseases. This attractive variety also performed highly in the Potatoes USA National Chip Processing Trials. With any luck, the new Mackinaw potato may even find its way to your next game-day celebration.

Irish Ingenuity at Mackinac

“There is a clear suggestion of a Celtic origin in the name that heads this sketch,

and some experiences in the early life of Mr. Doherty show him possessed of a large

 percentage of the spirit of independence and self-reliance that is characteristic of the Irish people.”

 Men of Progress: Embracing Biographical Sketches of Representative Michigan Men. Detroit (1900)

 Alfred James Doherty was born May 1, 1856, in New York City. His grandfather captained an ocean liner, immigrating to America from the north of Ireland. A.J.’s father, Michael, worked as a lumber dealer along New York’s East River, specializing in cutting and marketing ship timbers. The Doherty family eventually settled in western New York state, where they operated a profitable farm and raised many children.

Portrait from Men of Progress (1900)

 In 1876, Alfred married Alice Gleason, and the young couple set off to make a life in the west. In 1878, they settled in Clare, Michigan, in the midst of the state’s booming lumber industry. Of modest means, A.J. first found employment in a sawmill, working in every department, from piling lumber to scaling logs. Their four children, Floyd, Frank, Lyda, and Alfred Jr., were raised in Clare and would grow up to love Mackinac Island.

 With seemingly endless energy, Alfred held many positions over the next decade, including store clerk, teacher, insurance agent,  stock farmer, and owner of a hardware store, selling supplies to lumber companies. In 1892, he became general manager of the Clare Woodenware Co., and by 1900 ran the Clare Electric Light Company. He also served as local manager of Michigan Bell Telephone.

 Renowned for his “business hustle and ever present smile,” nearly every Michigander would eventually hear of Mr. Doherty. From 1901–1906, “Bellwether Doherty” served three notable terms as State Senator, being a leading member of the Michigan Republican party. He later served on the State Board of Agriculture, the Public Domain Commission, as superintendent of the Michigan State Fair, and as a long-standing trustee of the Michigan State Agricultural College (now Michigan State University).

Mackinac Island’s Municipal Water, Light and Power Company, by William H. Gardiner (bef. 1915)

 In 1911, A.J. Doherty became owner of the Municipal Water, Light and Power Company on Mackinac Island. It was a family business, with sons Fred, Frank, and Alfred Jr. each serving various roles for nearly two decades. Originally constructed in 1901, the main building was located along the island’s eastern shore. From there, water was pumped from Lake Huron to a reservoir at Fort Holmes, where gravity-fed pipes distributed it to island locations. In his 1916 report, Names of Places of Interest on Mackinac Island, Michigan, Rev. Frank A. O’Brien boasted, “Mackinac has a fine sewer system, as pure a water supply, and as perfect lighting and electrical service as any place in the country.”

Mackinac Specialty Co.

 In 1916, A.J. Doherty combined his boundless energy, agricultural knowledge, and forestry skills in the Mackinac Specialty Company. His signature product was “Mackinac Balsam Balm,” designed for medicinal use. Made from the clear resin of Balsam Fir trees, various balms, decoctions, and tinctures have been made from this fragrant liquid for centuries. Balsam Fir is one of Mackinac Island’s most abundant evergreens, especially common along the shoreline.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Other products, including a “fumigated nest egg” and an eight piece kitchen set, were intended to make life easier on the farm and in the household. With Doherty’s many other business interests, the Mackinac Specialty Company was a short-lived venture, only lasting a few years. Their family legacy, however, would continue to be felt by the Mackinac Island community.

The Doherty Cottage (Geary House), on Mackinac Island’s Market Street, as it appeared in 1970.

 For many years, the Doherty family lived seasonally on Market Street, next to today’s Beaumont Memorial. Now known as the Geary House, the structure was originally built about 1846 by Irish immigrant Matthew Geary, a prominent citizen of 19th century Mackinac Island. Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971, the structure was restored by Mackinac State Historic Parks, but is not open for public tours.

 The 1920s were a busy time for the entire family. Alfred Doherty Sr. served a term as mayor of Clare and built the impressive Doherty Hotel, which opened in April 1924. The hotel featured a banquet hall, ballroom, automatic elevator, billiard room, laundry, display rooms for traveling salesman, barber shop, and even a public library. The local paper boasted, “Residents of Clare are free in their assertions that for its size, there is no better hotel in the state.” Nearly 100 years later, the business is still owned by the Doherty family and is a defining feature of the Clare community.

 Near the end of the decade, the Dohertys sold their interests in the Municipal Power Company to a New York City firm and brothers Alfred Jr. and Frank helped form the Mackinac Island State Bank. The bank opened October 25, 1928, with Alfred serving as vice president and Frank working as cashier. Frank also became a beloved member of the Mackinac Island Civic Association, a forerunner to the current Chamber of Commerce. The association published an island guide book in 1927, and purchased the large American Fur Company buildings on Market Street in 1930. Frank’s wife, Sarah, served as custodian of the city-owned museum for many years.

 Senator Alfred J. Doherty died in Clare on September 27, 1929. The following year, Frank B. Doherty passed away, on October 23, 1930, at his home on Mackinac Island. The island community mourned his passing, lowering flags to half-mast as tribute. A special note in his obituary reads, “Mr. Doherty was a genial and attractive personality and popular with all classes. The island surely mourns the death of one who has eagerly and conscientiously promoted the interests and material progress of Mackinac Island.”

 

 

The Coronation of George III

The Coronation of George III

King George III in 1762, by Allan Ramsay

On Tuesday, September 22, 1761, George III was formally crowned King of Great Britain and Ireland at Westminster Abbey. Only 23 years old, George had ascended to the throne a year earlier, when his grandfather, King George II, died in October 1760. After an appropriate mourning period for his grandfather, George III and his new wife Charlotte (they were married just two weeks before the ceremony, without any prior meetings) were crowned in a joyous celebration in London. (more…)