Fort Mackinac Then and Now

Mackinac State Historic Parks is fortunate to have an ever-expanding collection of original objects related to the sites we preserve and interpret. These objects help us share the many stories of Mackinac with our visitors. One of the more unique pieces in the collection is an original photo album and scrapbook assembled by Edward Pratt, a U.S. Army officer who served at Fort Mackinac and several other stations around the world at the end of the 19th century. Using these photos, Mackinac State Historic Parks’ Chief Curator and Historian Craig Wilson will compare and contrast these photos with the actual locations, providing a deeper look into the iconic fort’s history. Admission is by donation. #thisismackinac

The images from Pratt’s album have been compiled into a book, also by Wilson. More information can be found here: https://www.mackinacparks.com/books-publications/through-an-officers-eyes-the-photo-album-of-edward-b-pratt-u-s-army-1873-1902/

Vintage Base Ball

A vintage game of “base ball” as it was meant to be played, barehanded and by gentlemen’s rules on the old Fort Mackinac ball field behind Fort Mackinac, the oldest continually used ball field in Michigan! Learn an old-fashioned cheer, watch players fined for smoking cigars on the field, and enjoy a good old-fashioned rivalry! We welcome back the Mackinaw City Boys for the 2022 match! Sponsored by Mary’s Bistro and Draught House.

Admission by donation. #thisismackinac

Underground Fort Mackinac

Fort Mackinac saw many changes over its 115-year history. All the buildings you see in the fort today were built by soldiers, but there were many other buildings that did not survive. Join Curator of Archaeology Lynn Evans for an evening walking tour to explore the archaeological side of Fort Mackinac history. This is a free event; donations welcome. Meet at the Fort Mackinac Avenue of Flags. #thisismackinac

A Star Spangled Fourth of July

The historic island fort is decked out in patriotic finery with banners, flags and bunting. It is an 1880’s Independence Day, with 38-gun salutes honoring the states of the period and children’s games. Guests join the party and participate in games on the fort parade ground.

Don’t miss out on this all 1880s Independence Day as we have catch and baseball available on the parade ground to go along with foot races and sack races, a reading of the Declaration of Independence, the raising of the colors, the national salute (38 rifle blasts for the 38 states of the 1880s!), a cannon salute, and much more!

Games will be available on the parade ground beginning at 1:30 p.m. Special programming will take place at 2:00 p.m.

The Tea Room Restaurant, operated by Grand Hotel, is open all day serving snacks, sweets, and beverages, and will have full lunch service from 11:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

All special programming is included with regular admission to Fort Mackinac. #thisismackinac

Remembering Dr. Beaumont at Mackinac

 In 1955 the “Beaumont Memorial” opened at the corner of Market and Fort Streets on Mackinac Island. Now known as the American Fur Co. Store and Dr. Beaumont Museum, the property is operated by Mackinac State Historic Parks. It was originally funded by the Michigan Medical Society.

 The Beaumont Museum was not the first nor only place that the Dr. Beaumont has been commemorated on Mackinac Island.

Beaumont Monument, Fort Mackinac

 In 1900 the Upper Peninsula and Michigan State Medical Societies placed this monument to Beaumont and St. Martin Beaumont inside Fort Mackinac. It is located next to the Officers’ Stone Quarters, where Beaumont began his experiments.

Dean Cornwell Studies for Beaumont and St. Martin, 1938

Pencil Study for Beaumont and St. Martin

Pencil Study for Beaumont and St. Martin

Oil Study for Beaumont and St. Martin

Donated by Paul Douglas Withington

 Dean Cornwell (1892-1960) was one of the most prominent American illustrators from the 1920s into the 1950s. A major corporate commission was The Pioneers of American Medicine by Wyeth Laboratories. The series of eight paintings commemorated the achievements of America’s medical heroes. Beaumont was one of the subjects chosen.

Oil Study for Beaumont and St. Martin

 The original 1938 painting was exhibited for several decades at the Beaumont Museum but was returned to Wyeth Laboratories in 1999. However, Mackinac State Historic Parks has two original studies by Cornwell in its collection, currently exhibited at The Richard & Jane Manoogian Mackinac Art Museum. They represent preliminary work done for the final painting. Cornwell was a gifted draftsman and master of composition. All his paintings were preceded by extensive research. Nonetheless, true accuracy was often sacrificed for drama and idealism. The rustic cabin setting presents a more “frontier” atmosphere than Beaumont’s own quarters at Fort Mackinac, where the experiments took place. Likewise, Beaumont probably did not conduct his work wearing a full-dress uniform.

Marshall Frederick, William Beaumont M.D. Bas Relief Plaque

 In 1955 the Michigan Medical Society commissioned this bas relief for the Beaumont Museum. It is now also on exhibit at The Richard & Jane Manoogian Mackinac Art Museum.

 Marshall Fredericks (1908-1998) was one of the most prolific sculptors of the twentieth century, known in America and abroad for his monumental figurative sculpture, public memorials and fountains, portraits, and animal figures. His sculptures can be found in more than 150 public and corporate locations in seventeen states and seven foreign countries.

 Mackinac State Historic Parks is commemorating the bicentennial of the accidental shooting of St. Martin that led to Beaumont’s experiments throughout the summer of 2022. A new exhibit is on display at the American Fur Co. Store & Dr. Beaumont Museum, which will be open through August 20. Admission is included with a Fort Mackinac or Historic Downtown Mackinac ticket.

 

Dr. William Beaumont and Alexis St. Martin

Dr. William Beaumont served at Fort Mackinac from 1820 to 1825.

On June 6, 1822, a shot rang out inside the American Fur Company’s retail store located on Mackinac Island’s Market Street. When the smoke cleared, Alexis St. Martin, a young French Canadian voyageur, lay bleeding on the floor. Although the exact cause of the accident has been lost to history, the immediate results were abundantly clear: St. Martin was grievously wounded, with a large hole blasted into the left side of his abdomen and the interior of his stomach exposed. Although St. Martin was not expected to survive, store patrons sent word to fetch Dr. William Beaumont, the post surgeon at Fort Mackinac and the only physician on Mackinac Island. Arriving minutes after the accident, Beaumont made St. Martin comfortable but judged his wound to be mortal. The doctor had St. Martin carried to the post hospital in the fort. To Beaumont’s amazement, St. Martin survived, and under the doctor’s care began healing. Together, Beaumont and St. Martin embarked upon a journey of scientific discovery that continues to shape medical care today.

Dr. Beaumont’s book.

 As St. Martin recovered from the accident, the wound slowly healed. However, instead of closing, the hole into his stomach fused to his abdominal muscles, creating a permanent opening. Beaumont realized this presented a unique opportunity to observe the digestive process inside a living person, and at the urging of the surgeon general of the army began making informal notes about what he could see inside St. Martin’s stomach as it worked to digest food. These initial observations occurred at Fort Mackinac in 1824, but grew into a series of formal experiments carried out periodically at other posts until 1833. By the time the final experiments concluded, Beaumont had gained a much clearer understanding of the human digestive process, publishing his findings as Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion. Although other physicians and scientists had previously contributed to our understanding of how our stomachs work, St. Martin’s injury allowed Beaumont to make critical observations about the mechanical and chemical processes which occur during the digestive process.

The entrance to the new exhibit at the American Fur Co. Retail Store & Dr. Beaumont Museum.

 To mark the 200th anniversary of the accident that set Beaumont and St. Martin on their path of discovery, a new gallery exhibit is being installed in the American Fur Company Retail Store. Opening on June 4, this new exhibit tells the story of the accident and subsequent research that transformed Beaumont into the “father of gastric physiology.” Admission to the new exhibit is included with tickets to Fort Mackinac and the Mackinac Island Native American Museum at the Biddle House. We hope you’ll join us soon to see this exciting new addition and learn more about Mackinac Island’s own contribution to medical science.

Mackinac Associates: Celebrating 40 Years of Supporting Mackinac State Historic Parks

The first edition of Curiosities, the Mackinac Associates newsletter

 In the late 1970s several Mackinac Island cottagers met with Eugene Petersen, then Director of Mackinac State Historic Parks, to discuss creating a private organization to help support state park programs and initiatives. In 1980, the Mackinac Island State Park Commission gave its blessing for the creation of a non-profit membership organization. On August 22, 1980, the Commission passed a resolution to recognize and name Mackinac Associates – a group dedicated to sponsoring projects to benefit the needs of the historic sites under their jurisdiction.  The group held its first event in 1981 and in 1982 Mackinac Associates received their official 501(c)(3) non-profit designation.

 Forty years later, Mackinac Associates has supported an expansive and remarkable list of projects thanks to the incredible growth and support of the organization by its members and their dedication to the group’s mission: “Friends preserving and sharing Mackinac’s heritage.” What started as a group of a dozen local residents and friends of the park has grown into a friend’s group that today is made up of more than 2,000 members. Mackinac Associates’ members can be proud that they are part of an organization that supports needed projects in every area of museum operation, and make possible interpretive programs, publications, exhibits, natural history education, park improvements and more.

As the highest point on Mackinac Island, Fort Holmes served as an active part of the island’s defenses between 1815 – 1817.

 Thanks to the generosity of Mackinac Associates members and donors, Mackinac State Historic Parks has been able to fulfill its mission of preserving the cultural and natural resources of the Straits of Mackinac. Looking back at the past forty years, Mackinac Associates has provided over $2,000,000 in support. Funds raised through membership fees, sponsorships, and fundraising campaigns go towards assisting efforts in preserving the rich history and natural beauty of the Straits of Mackinac. This includes Mackinac Island State Park, which encompasses over 80% of Mackinac Island, Michilimackinac and Mill Creek State Parks in Mackinaw City, and all the buildings and sites contained within those boundaries.

 Mackinac Associates biggest financial assistance to date has been $250,000 in support of the reconstruction of Fort Holmes on Mackinac Island. Fundraising for the reconstruction started in conjunction with the bicentennial of the War of 1812 and the project was completed in 2015. The reconstruction of Fort Holmes continues to shine as a primary example of the work Mackinac Associates members, donors, and sponsors have done over the years in support of Mackinac State Historic Parks.

Exhibit inside the Biddle House

 Other major projects have included $130,000 for the creation of the Mackinac Island Native American Museum at the Biddle House, and this year, $40,000 for the redesign of the Dr. Beaumont Museum inside the American Fur Co. Store. The exhibit, in commemoration of the 200th anniversary of the accidental shooting of French-Canadian voyageur Alexis St. Martin, recognizes Dr. Beaumont’s famous experiments and the scientific process related to the digestive system, as well as the effect it had on St. Martin.

 According to Mackinac Island State Park Director, Steve Brisson: “It’s not just the financial support that we’re thankful for. Knowing there is this group of people that are so supportive of our mission is hugely gratifying and a big part of what makes Mackinac Associates special.” Mackinac Associates helps fund projects both large and small, such as providing a historically accurate anvil for the blacksmith shop, funding for the production of the Shipwrecks of the Straits video shown at Old Mackinac Point Lighthouse, and accessibility scooters that are more durable and can handle the gravel and sand at Colonial Michilimackinac and the trails at Historic Mill Creek Discovery Park.

Mackinac Associates help bring students on site where they can be a part of seeing history come alive.

 In addition to park projects, Mackinac Associates has supported the Mackinac State Historic Parks’ Education Outreach program since its creation in 1988 and has provided over $700,000 for education outreach programs. Through Mackinac Associates support, interpreters have visited more than 250,000 children in classrooms across Michigan, engaging and entertaining them as they learn about the important history and natural history of the Straits of Mackinac. In 2020, this fund also allowed for Mackinac State Historic Parks to provide a virtual option for outreach highlighting the park’s historic sites with online exhibits, exciting videos, educational materials, and more. Mackinac Associates also has been able to use this fund to provide grants to a number of schools each year to visit Mackinac State Historic Parks in person.

Members watch the screening process at the behind-the-scenes archaeology program in July 2021.

 Exclusive after-hours programming and events has also been a favorite of Mackinac Associates members. Every year in August, the Mackinac Associates Annual Business Meeting open to all membership presents the current business of the organization and allows attendees to meet candidates for the board. It also allows for fun and engaging programs each year just for members. In the past programming has included learning how to play cricket, meet authors of Mackinac State Historic Parks publications and discuss their works, and enjoy presentations from partners such as Eric Hemenway from the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians.

 As we look back on the 40-year history of Mackinac Associates, it is incredible the amount of support the organization has given Mackinac State Historic Parks, and the projects that have been accomplished thanks to this dedicated friend’s group.  Mackinac Associates members are passionate about preserving the rich history and natural beauty of the Straits of Mackinac, and can treasure the fact that they have a direct hand in helping to protect, preserve, and present Mackinac’s rich historic and natural resources.  If you have a fondness for Mackinac Island and the Straits of Mackinac, we hope you will consider showing that support by joining Mackinac Associates to help make the next 40 years just as successful as the last.